- Erin Hurley (Author)
National Performance: Representing Quebec from Expo 67 to Céline Dion. University of Toronto Press (purchase at Amazon.ca)
Reviewed by Pamela V. Sing
What comes to mind when you read or hear the expression
distinctly Québécois? Would Expo 67 or Michel Tremblay’s play Les belles-sœurs qualify as possibilities? How about Céline Dion? Exactly how, why, and according to which or whose criteria does something or someone come to mean and matter as Québécois, even when it, she, or he does not appear to correspond to the national Québécois imaginary? Erin Hurley’s inventive and innovative award-winning essay—in 2010, National Performance: Representing Quebec from Expo 67 to Céline Dion garnered the NeMLA Book Prize, the International Council for Canadian Studies Pierre Savard Award, and the Ann Saddlemyer Award—seeks answers to those questions in the field of theatre and performance, and in so doing, effectively
revises the terms by which performance defines its relationships to the nation, and raises important questions regarding historiographic practices in studies of national performance.
Hurley’s study focusses on the period dating from the mid-1960s, when the concept of Quebec-ness or québécité having taken root, the
idea of Quebec-as-nation solidified in cultural, political, social, and economic practices, until the mid-2000s. Paying close attention to the formal operations as well as the reception of five emblematic theatre or performance productions, the latter englobing a broad spectrum of framed or displayed human actions, the essay examines how,
in response to altered hemispheric economic relations and an increasingly globalized cultural field, the notion of québécité has evolved and required that critics and audiences reassess and redefine their consideration of what constitutes theatrical québécité. The importance of the question stems chiefly from two facts: first, that as a nation without a state, Quebec has often relied on its cultural production to establish its nation-ness, and second, each of the performance case-studies to be discussed has attracted international attention to Quebec. These are the three mentioned at the beginning of this review, i.e., Expo 67, Les belles-sœurs, and Céline Dion, but also
immigrant and polyglot author Marco Micone’s 1980s triptych of plays about Quebec’s Italian immigrant condition, as well as his manifesto poem
Speak What, and Carbone 14’s image-theatre. Hurley’s discursive analysis of each performance, discussed in relation to that performance’s critical reception by different interpretive communities, reveals interesting and often surprising insights about the perceived legitimacy or illegitimacy of the national image deemed to have been projected by each of them.
The eight-page Introduction specifying the book’s intentions and objectives includes two black-and-white photographs of the Quebec Pavilion at Expo 67, a national project whose Quebec-ness is conventionally accepted without question. Her preliminary discussion allows Hurley to confirm that the two dominant figures used for the theorization of performance-nation relations are reflection and construction, and that through the introduction of three new figures, she intends to alter
not only what can be recognized as national . . . , but also the conditions of perception for national performance. The second chapter, entitled
Marginals, Metaphors, and Mimesis, provides a clear explanation of the study’s conceptual and historical groundwork. Whereas some historians of national performance establish a
naively mimetic relationship between cultural production and ideas of nation by postulating that culture
represents nation, and that, therefore, national cultural productions
mirror various aspects of a nation, such as its
geography, language(s), aesthetic(s) and ethnicity (ies), by eschewing the requirement of reproductive or imitative iconicity as a governing principle, Hurley is able not only to study complex cases involving productions not immediately perceived as depicting the nation’s
real-life likeness, but also to recast hitherto neglected social categories that, most often, have been relegated to object positions deprived of agency.
While reminding us that cultural productions predicated on realistic social mimesis cannot but portray a culturally dominant national self, the essay underscores the fact that such productions tend, perforce, to jettison
women and marginalized others to the nation’s periphery. Interpretive models rooted in the search for likenesses between performance and nation see socially sidelined figures merely as metaphors for marginalized social categories, and fail therefore to create or produce new meanings or ways to imagine the nation in
feminist, anti-racist [or] otherwise non-reductive terms. Hurley’s theoretical model revises conceptions of the national by including three alternate figures: metonymy, simulation, and
affection, a term used to refer to that oft unmarked aspect of national labour known as
emotional labour, which
makes, manages, and distributes relationships through affective appeals; it draws people and objects, real and imaginary, into affective webs, thus creating
national sentiment. By effectively exposing woman and her emotional labour as constituting the infrastructure of Québécois national performance, the introduction of these figures enables an interpretive shift that liberates
woman—as fictional figure and lived reality—from a limited and stereotyped form of national
The following chapters, as their titles indicate, chart a critical history of performance’s national labours, grounding the discussion of each case-study in one of the five figures. Chapters Three and Four, entitled respectively
National Construction: Quebec’s Modernity at Expo 67, and
National Reflection: Michel Tremblay’s Les belles-sœurs and le nouveau théâtre québécois, reveal the gendered terrain favoured by nationalization’s common figures. Thereafter, the discursive analysis of productions characterized by
increasingly oblique and strained links between performance and nation is grounded in one of Hurley’s alternate figures, whence arise the last three chapters, entitled respectively:
National Simulation: Marco Micone’s culture immigrée,
National Metonymy: Arresting Images in the Devised Works of Carbone 14, and
National Affection: Céline Dion. The essay tellingly concludes with a study of Quebec’s feminist experimental theatre of the 70s and 80s, which portrayed women not as representations of men’s imaginings, needs, or desires, but in relation to
women’s bodies, emotions, and experiences, that is to say, in terms of uniquely female realities that prevented the appropriation of woman for other purposes.
This compelling and lucidly written study makes an important contribution to Quebec and Canadian Studies, as it is certain to change the way we will henceforth recognize a performance as being
- Canadian Lives by Janice Fiamengo
Books reviewed: Dictionary of Canadian Biography: Volume XIV, 1911-1920 by Ramsay Cook and Jean Hamelin
- Cartography to Colony by Bryan N. S. Gooch
Books reviewed: Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island by Daniel W. Clayton
- Diaspora and Indigeneity by Paul Lai
Books reviewed: Cultural Grammars of Nation, Diaspora, and Indigeneity in Canada by Christine Kim, Sophie McCall, and Melina Baum Singer
- Transnational America Today by Michael Nowlin
Books reviewed: Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America by Alejandro Portes and Rubén G. Rumbaut, Strangers at the Gates: New Immigrants in Urban America by Roger Waldinger, and Harlemworld: Doing Race and Class in Contemporary Black America by John L. Jackson, Jr.
- Undisciplining CanLit by Brendan McCormack
Books reviewed: Producing Canadian Literature: Authors Speak on the Literary Marketplace by Kit Dobson and Smaro Kamboureli and Shifting the Ground of Canadian Literary Study by Smaro Kamboureli and Robert Zacharias
MLA: Sing, Pamela V. Staging Québécité. canlit.ca. Canadian Literature, 8 Aug. 2012. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
This review originally appeared in Canadian Literature #215 (Winter 2012), Indigenous Focus. (pg. 173 - 175)
***Please note that the articles and reviews from the Canadian Literature website (www.canlit.ca) may not be the final versions as they are printed in the journal, as additional editing sometimes takes place between the two versions. If you are quoting from the website, please indicate the date accessed when citing the web version of reviews and articles.